The History of Mexico: From Spanish Conquest to Superpower


North American Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821. At the time, many Mexicans felt their nation would surpass the US in many respects. But Mexico’s growth stalled.

In 1500, Spain occupied Mexico. The Spanish conquistadors came in large numbers to expand the empire. They used better weapons and strategies to defeat the native people they met. From 1519 until 1521, Hernán Cortez’s Aztec kingdom fell. The Aztecs’ local adversaries supported the Spanish in brutal conflicts. The Spanish called their conquest New Spain.


Spain valued New Spain’s gold, silver, and gems. The Spanish tried to Christianize the natives to dominate them. They saw the Mayans, who constructed spectacular pyramids, as aggressive savages and shameless infidels. The Spanish introduced smallpox, measles, influenza, and typhus to the New World. These infections killed many natives. The disease may have killed 90% of the indigenous inhabitants.

Spain introduced the Inquisition to Mexico decades later, to control the number of American-born Spaniards. Spanish kings disliked US liberal ideals. The Rights of Man, by Thomas Paine, changed the globe once the US became a nation in 1776. A revolution was brewing, but it wouldn’t reach Mexico for years.

A lack of investment and modernisation has hampered Mexico’s economic growth. Agriculture and mining dominated the economy, forsaking industry and technology. Mexico’s political system was corrupt and unstable, hindering policymaking and implementation.

Mexico’s relationship with its northern neighbour, the US, hindered its superpower ambitions. The US has long affected Mexico’s politics and economy. This has frequently made Mexico an inferior partner. Repeated US interventions have exacerbated Mexico’s volatility and development.

Mexico has advanced despite these obstacles. Economic and political changes have boosted development and stability. Mexico also improved education, healthcare, and poverty.

Mexico’s culture and tradition have shaped its identity and given its people pride. Mexico’s culture, languages, and customs have mixed since pre-Columbian times. The country’s vivid art, music, literature, and gastronomy have inspired artists and innovators worldwide.


Mexico emphasises family and community. The nation values family and community. This has strengthened national unity and helped the country get past many of its problems from the past.

Mexico has also been improving its international connections and becoming a regional leader. International organisations and regional trade agreements involve the country. Mexico is also improving ties with the US and other regional nations.

Mexico may not be a superpower, but it has a rich history, culture, community, and family values and is developing its economy and international connections. The nation has encountered numerous obstacles, but its people have always surmounted them. Mexico will remain a global power.



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