Jim Holt, a prominent American philosopher and author, delved into this ultimate “why” question in his TED talk “Why Does the Universe Exist?”. The question of why the universe exists has baffled some of the greatest philosophical and scientific minds throughout history.
Holt examines the two extremes of reality in his talk: absolute nothingness and the fullest possible existence. He contends that reality is somewhere between these two opposites, with various intermediate realities in between.
According to Holt, one of these intermediate realities is the most mathematically elegant, leaving out any ugly asymmetries or inelegant bits. However, he asserts that our universe is not this elegant reality, as it’s “stupidly constructed” with arbitrary coupling constants and mass ratios.
Holt highlights another intermediate reality, which he views as the best of all possible worlds in an ethical sense, where sentient beings don’t suffer needlessly. But infinite mediocre, incomplete messes or generic realities exist between nothingness and the fullest possible reality that fall infinitely short of complete fullness yet are infinitely removed from nothingness.
According to Holt, the resolution to the mystery of existence is that our reality is one of these generic realities. He emphasizes that reality has to turn out some way, and if it has some unique feature like being elegant, full, or simple, it would need an explanation. However, there’s no further explanation if it’s just one of these random, generic realities.
To support his argument, Holt cites the theory of inflation, predicting a big, infinite, and messy reality. Observations made by radio telescopes in Antarctica have confirmed this scenario by analyzing the signature of gravitational waves from just before the Big Bang.
What does it mean for us to live in a generic reality? According to Holt, it is still purposeful and meaningful despite its mediocrity. He suggests that it resonates nicely with the mediocrity we all feel at the core of our being. Holt further notes that giving life meaning is possible by magnifying the good bits and minimizing the bad bits.
Holt concludes his talk by sharing an interesting fact about himself: he has never owned a cell phone. The audience applauds, but his point is clear: even without the latest technology or gadgets, we can still find purpose and meaning in our existence.
While Holt’s view is compelling, other philosophers and scientists hold different opinions about the mystery of existence. For instance, physicist Lawrence Krauss supposes that the universe may have come into being out of sheer nothingness through a quantum fluctuation. According to Krauss, one cannot say whether the universe existed infinitely or not since time itself began at the moment of the Big Bang.
Philosopher Nick Bostrom speculates that we might live in a simulation created by a more advanced civilization. In this conjecture, the universe exists because it was programmed to exist. He suggests that if we accept one of three propositions, namely that almost all civilizations at our level of technological development will become extinct before becoming technologically mature, there is a strong convergence among technologically mature civilizations on the essential structure of advanced technology or sufficiently advanced civilizations are interested in running ancestor simulations; then, we are likely living in a simulation ourselves.
In conclusion, the question of why the universe exists remains one of the great mysteries of human history. However, scientists and philosophers have offered various explanations throughout the ages. Whether we live in a generic reality or a simulation, finding purpose and meaning in our existence is a universal human goal. As we continue to explore the mysteries of our existence, we will unravel the secrets of why the universe exists and how we fit into it.
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